Traditions and Encounters, AP Edition (Bentley), 5th Edition

Chapter 31: Societies at Crossroads

Multiple Choice Quiz

At the end of the nineteenth century, the Ottoman empire, Russian empire, Qing dynasty, and Tokugawa Japan were "societies at crossroads" because they
A)were all dealing with the challenges of rapid industrialization.
B)discovered through wars and confrontations that they were militarily much weaker than the western powers.
C)were all forced to grant equal rights and political freedom to their people.
D)were all competing for the same colonies and resources.
E)All these answers are correct.
The Ottoman military had declined by the nineteenth century because
A)the Janissary corps was more interested in palace intrigues than in military training.
B)the Janissaries resisted all efforts to modernize the army.
C)many provincial rulers had private mercenary armies.
D)Ottoman forces carried outmoded equipment.
E)All these answers are correct.
By 1913, all of the following provinces gained either independence or autonomy from Ottoman control EXCEPT
E)None of these is correct, because all gained either independence or autonomy.
The "capitulations" were humiliating concessions to the west that
A)allowed western powers to establish spheres of influence within Ottoman territory.
B)forbade the manufacture of cotton cloth and obliged Ottomans to buy textiles from Britain.
C)held European citizens exempt from Ottoman laws and taxes.
D)restricted the exchange of technology and prevented the emergence of domestic industry in the Ottoman empire.
E)permitted unrestricted traffic in and out of the Black Sea.
The most significant achievement of Sultan Mahmud II was the
A)creation of a system of primary education.
B)legal emancipation of women.
C)creation of a modern army.
D)creation of a legislative assembly.
E)reconquest of Egypt.
Tanzimat legal reforms included all of the following rights EXCEPT
A)equality before the law for all subjects.
B)public trials in civil courts.
C)the right to privacy.
D)women's right to sue for divorce.
E)None of these is correct, because all were among the Tanzimat legal reforms.
Which of the Young Turk proposals caused the most dissension in the empire?
A)Turkish as the official language of the empire
B)equality before the law
C)free public education
D)freedom of religion
E)universal suffrage
The Russian empire was defeated in the Crimean War because
A)the Ottoman army was superior in arms and training.
B)Britain and France joined forces to prevent Russian expansion into the Ottoman empire.
C)Russian troops mutinied and demanded a new constitution.
D)the people of the Balkan peninsula resisted Russian advances.
E)the Russian troops were inadequately trained.
The emancipation of Russian serfs in 1861
A)was achieved at the tsar's insistence.
B)was intended to avert a revolution.
C)brought freedom but few political rights for the peasants.
D)did not significantly increase agricultural production.
E)All these answers are correct.
Which of the following was NOT part of Witte's policy of industrialization?
A)construction of the trans-Siberian railroad
B)banking reform to encourage domestic savings and investment
C)protective tariffs to support emerging Russian industries
D)nationalization of key industries such as coal and steel
E)promotion of foreign investment in Russian industry
The Russian intelligentsia promoted terrorism as a strategy for political reform because
A)their attempts at more peaceful reform were crushed by the tsarist authorities.
B)Tsar Alexander II refused to consider any reform measures.
C)many were anarchists who believed that individual freedom could not be realized until all government was abolished.
D)they were affiliated with Zionists, who advocated the use of terrorism when necessary.
E)All these answers are correct.
Which of the following could be considered a contributing cause of the Russian revolution of 1905?
A)the lack of a representative legislative body
B)the defeat of Russia in the Russo-Japanese War
C)the Bloody Sunday massacre
D)the government's failure to address the inequities of land ownership
E)All these answers are correct.
The British insisted on their right to trade opium with China because
A)they were unaware of the social and health risks of opium addiction.
B)it was the only trade good that they could sell in China at a profit.
C)they planned to weaken the Chinese people with opium and then take over the Chinese economy.
D)they argued that opium was only a fraction of the volume of trade delivered to China.
E)the Chinese government had welcomed the opium trade in earlier times.
Which of the following was NOT a provision of the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842?
A)Britain gained control of the island of Hong Kong.
B)British merchants gained the right to conduct the opium trade unimpeded.
C)Chinese ports were open to foreign trade and residence.
D)Christian missionaries were permitted to come into China.
E)Japan gained control of the island of Taiwan.
The Taiping rebellion was defeated when
A)the dowager empress imprisoned the emperor and ended the Hundred Days reforms.
B)Nanjing was defeated by a combined force of imperial and European soldiers.
C)the dowager empress died, leaving a two-year-old child as emperor.
D)the British seized the Grand Canal and cut off north-south trade in the empire.
E)All these answers are correct.
In China, a "sphere of influence" was a
A)city designated for trade between Chinese and European merchants.
B)Christian mission where Chinese converts could live free of state persecution.
C)district in which a foreign power had exclusive trade, transportation, and mineral rights.
D)tributary state beyond the borders of the empire that paid taxes to the Qing dynasty in exchange for protection.
E)state-sponsored academy based on European science.
The Tokugawa shogunate was overthrown because
A)the Japanese were outraged by the unequal treaty forced on them by Commodore Perry.
B)the samurai were in debt to the merchant class.
C)the emperor had failed in his obligations to protect the Japanese people.
D)the daimyo led a tax revolt.
E)Japanese merchants wanted more access to western goods and technology.
The success of the Meiji restoration depended on destroying the power of
A)the daimyo and samurai classes.
B)the emperor and his court.
C)the Japanese military.
D)independent merchants.
E)All these answers are correct.
The capital for the early industrialization of Meiji Japan came primarily from
A)the export of textile products.
B)land taxes.
C)commercial taxes.
D)private investors.
E)foreign investors.
Which of the following was NOT a provision of the Meiji constitution?
A)Japan became a constitutional monarchy.
B)The right to vote was based on property qualifications.
C)The emperor could disregard the recommendations of the Diet.
D)The lower classes were represented in the lower chamber of the Diet.
E)Individual rights were affirmed but made secondary to the needs of the state.
Traditions & Encounters, 5e
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