Traditions and Encounters, AP Edition (Bentley), 5th Edition

Chapter 23: The Transformation of Europe

Multiple Choice Quiz

Martin Luther's criticism of the Roman Catholic church was greatly aided by
A)the printing press.
B)the enthusiastic support of clergy in the Catholic church.
C)local newspapers.
D)active guilds and artisans.
E)All these answers are correct.
Martin Luther's work had enthusiastic popular support because
A)he attacked the sale of indulgences that the poor could not afford.
B)many Christians shared his concern about the corruption of the church.
C)many German princes saw this as a way to break away from the church.
D)he supported the translation of the Bible from Latin into the vernacular languages.
E)All these answers are correct.
What political motivation encouraged the spread of Protestantism?
A)Protestantism provided people an opportunity to overthrow monarchies.
B)Protestantism encouraged people to claim their individual rights.
C)Protestantism encouraged militarism in European nations.
D)Protestantism provided monarchs an opportunity to break away from the political domination of Rome.
E)All these answers are correct.
In response to the challenges raised by the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic church
A)launched a military campaign against the German states.
B)abandoned its monasteries in Germany.
C)abandoned the practice of selling indulgences.
D)summoned a council to clarify doctrine and strengthen their spiritual commitment.
E)All these answers are correct.
What was the principle work of the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits)?
A)to expose witches and heretics
B)to be disciplined, educated representatives of the church throughout the world
C)to be soldiers for Jesus in the battle against Protestants
D)to direct the court of the Inquisition on behalf of the pope
E)to raise money for the church by selling indulgences
One reason for the hysterical witch hunts of the sixteenth century was that
A)the conflicts of the Reformation contributed to a climate of suspicion and violence.
B)unusual natural phenomena suggested supernatural causes.
C)desperate people turned to magic to try to improve their lives.
D)new texts claimed scientific evidence of witchcraft.
E)All these answers are correct.
The Thirty Years' War began when
A)the pope tried to force his subjects to return to the Catholic church.
B)Elizabeth I attempted to force Protestantism on Spain.
C)Charles V attempted to imprison Martin Luther.
D)the Holy Roman emperor tried to force his Bohemian subjects to return to Catholicism.
E)Louis XIV invaded the Low Countries.
Who benefited most from the religious controversy generated by the Reformation?
A)the people, because they had religious freedom
B)the peasants, because they were able to leave the estates and move into the cities
C)centralizing monarchs, because they gained more independent authority
D)the Catholic church, because it gained more committed supporters
E)the Islamic empires, because Europe was divided and weakened
Which of the following was NOT part of Charles V's holdings?
C)the Netherlands
Charles V was unable to forge a united empire for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that
A)the Lutheran challenge sapped much of his attention.
B)French kings undermined his efforts and allied themselves with his enemies.
C)there was no central administration to the empire; each state was governed separately.
D)his empire was geographically fragmented.
E)he alienated the pope for failing to crush Luther.
The new monarchs were characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
A)large centrally administered bureaucracies.
B)standing professional armies.
C)increased state revenues through taxes.
D)enhanced power at the expense of the nobles.
E)a commitment to individual liberty.
The Spanish Inquisition relied on religious justifications to advance what political end?
A)increasing the revenues for the Spanish crown
B)raising a vast army for Spain
C)discouraging the Spanish nobles from adopting Protestantism
D)crushing a suspected Muslim rebellion
E)None of these answers is correct.
Seventeenth-century constitutional monarchies were characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
A)representational institutions such as Parliament.
B)a system of shared authority.
C)state support for maritime trade and international commerce.
D)recognition of individual rights.
E)the election of the monarch by the merchant class.
According to the divine-right theory of government,
A)power and authority are based on a contract between the sovereign and his citizens.
B)the king derives his authority from God alone and is not accountable to his subjects.
C)the king has a divine mandate to serve his people well; if he violates that trust then he can be overthrown.
D)the people and the state exist only to enrich the sovereign.
E)God is the real sovereign, and the church represents his authority in earthly matters.
Louis XIV managed to control the nobles of France and their activities by
A)crushing the most powerful nobles in a civil war early in his reign.
B)heavily taxing the nobles' estates so they could no longer fund private armies.
C)requiring the nobility to live at Versailles where he could distract them and keep an eye on them.
D)appointing hundreds of new nobles from the merchant class, who were loyal to him.
E)All these answers are correct.
The reforms of Peter I included all of the following EXCEPT
A)offering better pay for peasants who served for life as professional soldiers.
B)forcing his subjects to adopt western European fashions.
C)forming a council of nobles to advise him on how best to improve the lives of serfs.
D)building the city of St. Petersburg to serve as a base of naval operations.
E)providing extensive training and modern weapons to soldiers.
The Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War, ensured that
A)Germany remained fragmented.
B)the nations of Europe would no longer go to war over religion.
C)each nation was permitted to direct its own internal affairs.
D)the balance of power was the new principle of European diplomacy.
E)All these answers are correct.
The population of Europe grew dramatically in the seventeenth century because of
A)improved nutrition, with new American food crops.
B)new agricultural technology, which increased output.
C)the development of the first immunizations for smallpox and plague.
D)improved public health and sanitation.
E)All these answers are correct.
New institutions that supported early capitalism included all of the following EXCEPT
A)banks and lending institutions.
B)craft guilds.
C)stock exchanges.
D)joint-stock companies.
E)insurance companies.
The putting-out system was profitable for all of the following groups EXCEPT the
A)entrepreneurs who moved cloth production into the countryside.
B)rural workers who did the spinning and weaving.
C)consumers who bought the finished cloth.
D)merchants and traders who shipped woolen cloth outside the country.
E)guild members who specialized in specific elements of cloth production such as weaving or dying.
Which individual is incorrectly paired with a scientific discovery?
A)Newton and the principle of gravity
B)Kepler and the planetary orbits
C)Galileo and the principle of inertia
D)Copernicus and the sun-centered model of the universe
E)Ptolemy and the moons of Jupiter
Galileo's discoveries would not have been possible without
A)the telescope.
B)the printing press.
C)the astrolabe.
D)the development of calculus.
E)All these answers are correct.
Isaac Newton's work seemed to suggest that
A)the solar system was only one of many thousand such systems in an infinite universe.
B)the stars and planets were part of a unified system, governed by the same natural laws.
C)God was indifferent to the prayers and concerns of humanity.
D)it was possible to mathematically prove the existence of God.
E)time and space were relative, not absolute constructs.
Traditions & Encounters, 5e
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