Traditions and Encounters, AP Edition (Bentley), 5th Edition

Chapter 23: The Transformation of Europe

Chapter Outline

  1. The fragmentation of western Christendom
    1. The Protestant Reformation
      1. Martin Luther (1483-1546) attacked the sale of indulgences, 1517
        1. Attacked corruption in the Roman Catholic Church; called for reform
        2. Argument reproduced with printing presses and widely read
        3. Enthusiastic popular response from lay Christians, princes, and many cities
        4. By mid-sixteenth century, half the German people adopted Lutheran Christianity
      2. Reform spread outside Germany
        1. Protestant movements popular in Swiss cities, Low Countries
        2. English Reformation sparked by King Henry VIII's desire for divorce
      3. John Calvin, French convert to Protestantism
        1. Organized model Protestant community in Geneva in the 1530s
        2. Calvinist missionaries were successful in Scotland, Low Countries, also in France and England
    2. The Catholic Reformation
      1. The Council of Trent, 1545-1563, directed reform of Roman Catholic Church
      2. The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) founded 1540 by Ignatius Loyola
        1. High standards in education
        2. Became effective advisors and missionaries worldwide
    3. Witch-hunts and religious wars
      1. Witch-hunts in Europe
        1. Theories and fears of witches intensified in the sixteenth century
        2. Religious conflicts of Reformation fed hysteria about witches and devil worship
        3. About sixty thousand executed, 95 percent of them women
      2. Religious wars between Protestants and Catholics throughout the sixteenth century
        1. Civil war in France for thirty-six years (1562-1598)
        2. War between Catholic Spain and Protestant England, 1588
        3. Protestant provinces of the Netherlands revolted against rule of Catholic Spain
      3. The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), the most destructive European war up to WWI
        1. Began as a local conflict in Bohemia; eventually involved most of Europe
        2. Devastated the Holy Roman Empire (German states): lost one-third population

  2. The consolidation of sovereign states
    1. The attempted revival of empire
      1. Charles V (reigned 1519-1556), Holy Roman Emperor
        1. Inherited a vast empire of far-flung holdings (see Map 24.1)
        2. Unable to establish a unified state
        3. Pressures from France and Ottomans halted expansion of the empire
    2. The new monarchs of England, France, and Spain
      1. Enhanced state treasuries by direct taxes, fines, and fees
        1. State power enlarged and more centralized
        2. Standing armies in France and Spain
        3. Reformation increased royal power and gave access to wealth of the Church
      2. The Spanish Inquisition, Catholic court of inquiry, founded 1478
        1. Intended to discover secret Muslims and Jews
        2. Used by Spanish monarchy to detect Protestant heresy and political dissidents
    3. Constitutional states and absolute monarchies
      1. Constitutional states of England and the Netherlands
        1. Characterized by limited powers, individual rights, and representative institutions
        2. Constitutional monarchy in England evolved out of a bitter civil war, 1642-1649
        3. Both had a prominent merchant class and enjoyed unusual prosperity
        4. Both built commercial empires overseas with minimal state interference
      2. Absolutism in France, Spain, Austria, and Prussia
        1. Based on the theory of the divine right of kings
        2. Cardinal Richelieu, French chief minister 1624-1642, crushed power of nobles
      3. The Sun King of France, Louis XIV (reigned 1643-1715)
        1. Model of royal absolutism: the court at Versailles
        2. Large standing army kept order
        3. Promoted economic development: roads, canals, promoting industry and exports
      4. Rulers in Spain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia saw absolute France as a model
    4. The European states system
      1. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) ended the Thirty Years' War
        1. Laid foundation for system of independent sovereign states
        2. Abandoned notion of religion unity
        3. Did not end war between European states
      2. The balance of power
        1. No ruler wanted to see another state dominate all the others
        2. Diplomacy based on shifting alliances in national interests
      3. Military development costly and competitive
        1. New armaments (cannons and small arms) and new military tactics
        2. Other empires--China, India, and the Islamic states--did not keep apace

  3. Early capitalist society
    1. Population growth and urbanization
      1. Population growth
        1. American food crops improved Europeans' nutrition and diets
        2. Increased resistance to epidemic diseases after the mid-seventeenth century
        3. European population increased from 81 million in 1500 to 180 million in 1800
      2. Urbanization
        1. Rapid growth of major cities, for example, Paris from 130,000 in 1550 to 500,000 in 1650
        2. Cities increasingly important as administrative and commercial centers
    2. Early capitalism and proto-industrialization
      1. The nature of capitalism
        1. Private parties sought to take advantage of free market conditions
        2. Economic decisions by private parties, not by governments or nobility
        3. Forces of supply and demand determined price
      2. Supply and demand
        1. Merchants built efficient transportation and communication networks
        2. New institutions and services: banks, insurance, stock exchanges
      3. Joint-stock companies like EEIC and VOC organized commerce on a new scale
      4. Capitalism actively supported by governments, especially in England and Netherlands
        1. Protected rights of private property, upheld contracts, settled disputes
        2. Chartered joint-stock companies and authorized these to explore, conquer, and colonize distant lands
      5. The putting-out system, or proto-industrialization, of seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
        1. Entrepreneurs bypassed guilds, moved production to countryside
        2. Rural labor cheap, cloth production highly profitable
    3. Social change in early modern Europe
      1. Early capitalism altered rural society: improved material standards, increased financial independence of rural workers
      2. Profits and ethics
        1. Medieval theologians considered profit making to be selfish and sinful
        2. Adam Smith: society would prosper as individuals pursued their own interests
        3. Capitalism generated deep social strains also: bandits, muggers, witch-hunting
      3. The nuclear family strengthened by capitalism
        1. Families more independent economically, socially, and emotionally
        2. Love between men and women, parents and children became more important

  4. Science and enlightenment
    1. The reconception of the universe
      1. The Ptolemaic universe: A motionless earth surrounded by nine spheres
        1. Could not account for observable movement of the planets
        2. Compatible with Christian conception of creation
      2. The Copernican universe
        1. Nicolaus Copernicus suggested that the sun was the center of the universe, 1543
        2. Implied that the earth was just another planet
    2. The Scientific Revolution
      1. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
        1. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) demonstrated planetary orbits to be elliptical
        2. With a telescope, Galileo saw sunspots, moons of Jupiter, mountains of the moon
        3. Galileo's theory of velocity of falling bodies anticipated the modern law of inertia
      2. Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
        1. Published Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy in 1686
        2. Offered mathematical explanations of laws that govern movements of bodies
        3. Newton's work symbolized the scientific revolution--direct observation and mathematical reasoning
    3. The Enlightenment
      1. Science and society
        1. Enlightenment thinkers sought natural laws that governed human society in the same way that Newton's laws governed the universe
        2. John Locke: all human knowledge comes from sense perceptions
        3. Adam Smith: laws of supply and demand determine price
        4. Montesquieu: used political science to argue for political liberty
        5. Center of Enlightenment was France where philosophes debated issues of day
      2. Voltaire (1694-1778)
        1. French philosophe, champion of religious liberty and individual freedom
        2. Prolific writer; wrote some seventy volumes in life, often bitter satire
      3. Deism popular among thinkers of Enlightenment, including Voltaire
        1. Accepted the existence of a god but denied supernatural teachings of Christianity
        2. God the Clockmaker ordered the universe according to rational and natural laws
      4. The theory of progress--the ideology of the philosophes
      5. Impact of Enlightenment
        1. Weakened the influence of organized religion
        2. Encouraged secular values based on reason rather than revelation
        3. Subjected society to rational analysis, promoted progress and prosperity
Traditions & Encounters, 5e
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