Traditions and Encounters, AP Edition (Bentley), 5th Edition

Chapter 37: The End of Empire

Chapter Outline

  1. Independence in Asia
    1. India's "vivisection": partitioned independence
      1. Indian self-rule
        1. British finally willing to consider independence after WWII
        2. Muslim separatism grew; feared domination by Hindus
        3. Muslim League called a Day of Direct Action in 1946; rioting left six thousand dead
      2. Partition of India and ensuing violence
        1. Gandhi condemned division of India as a "vivisection"
        2. Independent India, 1947, divided into Muslim Pakistan and Hindu India
        3. Ten million refugees moved either to India or Pakistan; one million died in migration
        4. Gandhi assassinated by a Hindu extremist, 30 January 1948
      3. Conflicts between India and Pakistan
        1. 1947, fought over province of Kashmir; Pakistan lost
        2. Pakistan allied with United States; India accepted aid from both superpowers
        3. India and Pakistan stayed in British Commonwealth; English was official language
      4. Nonalignment emerged as attractive alternative to a cold war alliance
        1. Indian prime minister Nehru favored policy of nonalignment, the "third path"
        2. At Bandung Conference in Indonesia, 1955, twenty-nine nonaligned nations met
        3. Movement lacked unity; many members sought aid from United States or USSR
    2. Nationalist struggles in Vietnam
      1. Fighting the French
        1. Japan's invasion ended French rule; Ho Chi Minh declared independence
        2. France reasserted colonial rule, recaptured Saigon and south Vietnam, 1945
        3. Retook north by bombing Hanoi and Haiphong; killed at least ten thousand civilians
        4. Ho and followers (Viet Minh) conducted guerrilla warfare from the countryside
        5. Aided by Communist China, Viet Minh defeated the French in 1954
      2. Geneva Conference and partial independence, 1954
        1. Vietnam temporarily divided, north and south, at 17th parallel
        2. South Vietnam's leaders delayed elections, feared communist victory
        3. United States supported first the French, then the unpopular government of South Vietnam
        4. North Vietnam received assistance from USSR and China
      3. Cold war stalemate
        1. Nationalist-communist (Viet Cong) attacks on government of South Vietnam
        2. President Johnson launched bombing campaign, sent ground troops in 1965
        3. U.S. troops were trapped in a quagmire; dragged on until 1973
    3. Arab national states and the problem of Palestine
      1. Arab states, except Palestine, gained independence after World War II
      2. Zionist dream of a Jewish state in Palestine
        1. Zionism affirmed by Balfour Declaration, 1917, and Paris peace talks
        2. Britain supported Zionist effort, but limited Jewish migrants to Palestine
      3. Conflicts between Arab Palestinians and Jewish settlers, 1920s and 1930s
        1. Arab Palestinians resisted both British rule and Jewish settlement violently
        2. Increased Jewish migration to escape Nazis; armed for self-protection
        3. Independent Arab states opposed a Jewish state
      4. Creation of Israel
        1. Unable to resolve conflict, Britain turned Palestine question over to UN, 1947
        2. UN proposed dividing into two states, Palestine and Israel; Arabs opposed
        3. 1947, British withdrew, civil war broke out, Jews proclaimed the state of Israel
        4. Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq declared war on Israel
        5. Israel achieved victory in 1949; claimed territories larger than what was granted by UN plan
      5. Egypt and Arab nationalism
        1. Military leaders under Gamal A. Nasser seized power in 1952
        2. Nasser became prime minister, a leader of pan-Arab nationalism
        3. Egypt neutral in cold war, accepted aid from both powers
        4. Nasser dedicated to ending imperialism and destroying state of Israel
      6. Suez crisis, 1956, greatly enhanced Nasser's prestige
        1. Canal controlled by Britain; Nasser nationalized it to build Egypt's economy
        2. Attacked by British, French, and Israeli forces, which retook canal
        3. Both superpowers condemned military action, forced them to withdraw
        4. Suez crisis divided United States and its allies in western Europe

  2. Decolonization in Africa
    1. Forcing the French out of north Africa
      1. France in Africa
        1. 1950s and 1960s, French granted independence to all its African colonies except Algeria
        2. Two million French settlers in Algeria
        3. Revolt of May 1954 was repressed by French; eight thousand Algerian Muslims died
      2. War in Algeria, 1954-1962
        1. Algerian nationalists pursued guerrilla warfare against French rule
        2. By 1958, a half-million French soldiers were committed to the conflict
        3. Atrocities on both sides; heavy civilian casualties; Algerian independence, 1962
      3. Revolutionary writer Franz Fanon urged violence as weapon against colonial racism
    2. Black African nationalism and independence
      1. Growth of African nationalism
        1. Began as grassroots protest against European imperialism
        2. African nationalism celebrated Negritude (blackness), African roots
      2. Obstacles to African independence
        1. Imperial powers assumed Africans were not ready for self-government
        2. White settlers opposed black independence
        3. Anticommunist fears justified interference in African politics
        4. Economic and political instability often hampered postindependent Africa
    3. Freedom and conflict in sub-Sahara Africa
      1. Ghana (Gold Coast) first to gain independence, 1957
        1. Kwame Nkrumah, nationalist leader, jailed and censored for political actions
        2. Eventually released, Nkrumah became Ghana's first president, 1957
        3. Side-by-side posters presented Queen Elizabeth and Nkrumah as equals, 1961
      2. Anticolonial rebellion in Kenya
        1. Violent clashes between native Kikuyu (Mau Mau) and European settlers after 1947
        2. 1930s and 1940s, Kikuyu pushed off farm lands, reduced to wage slaves
        3. Labeling Mau Mau as communist subversives, Britain gained U.S. support
        4. Kikuyu uprising crushed by superior arms in 1955; twelve thousand Africans killed
        5. Political parties legalized, 1959; Kenya gained independence, 1963

  3. After independence: long-term struggles in the postcolonial era
    1. Communism and democracy in Asia
      1. Mao reunified China under communism
        1. Great Leap Forward (1958--1961) was an effort to catch up with industrial nations
        2. All land collectivized; farming and industry became communal
        3. Agricultural disaster; great famine followed, 1959--1962
      2. Great proletarian cultural revolution, 1966--1976
        1. To root out "revisionism," revitalize the revolutionary fervor
        2. Millions subjected to humiliation, persecution, and death
        3. Educated elites targeted; setback for Chinese education and science
        4. Died out after Mao's death in 1976
      3. Deng's revolution
        1. Deng Xiaoping regained power in 1981; opened China to foreign influence
        2. Welcomed economic, market reforms; remained politically authoritarian
        3. Crushed pro-democracy student demonstration in Tiananmen Square, 1989
        4. Hong Kong reverted to China in 1997: how to absorb democratic city into China?
      4. Stable Indian democracy was exception to Asian pattern of authoritarian rule
        1. Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhi, was prime minister of India, 1966-1977, 1980-1984
        2. "Green revolution" dramatically increased agricultural yields
        3. Adopted harsh policy of birth control: involuntary sterilization; voted out in 1977
        4. Reelected in 1980, but faced strong opposition from religious and ethnic groups
        5. Crushed uprising of Sikhs; was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards in 1984
        6. Her son Rajiv Gandhi was elected in 1985, but was assassinated in 1991
    2. Islamic resurgence in southwest Asia and north Africa
      1. Muslim revival and Arab disunity
        1. Cold war split Arab-Muslim world; pan-Arab unity did not materialize
        2. Israel became a staunch ally of United States; many Arab-Islamic states allied with USSR
        3. Israel defeated Egypt and Syria in 1967 and in 1973
        4. Egypt's president, Anwar Sadat, ended alliance with USSR in 1976
        5. Sadat signed peace treaty with Israel in 1980; was assassinated, 1981
        6. Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat and Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin signed peace treaties in 1993-1995
      2. Islamism: revival of Muslim traditions
        1. Reasserting Islamic values in Muslim politics
        2. Resentment at European and American societies
        3. Extremists embraced jihad, or duty to defend Islam from attack; justified terrorism
      3. The Iranian revolution, 1979
        1. CIA helped anticommunist Shah Mohammed Pahlavi gain power, 1953
        2. Repressive rule overthrown by Islamist followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, 1979
        3. Khomeini attacked United States for support of the shah
        4. Militants held sixty-nine Americans hostage for 444 days; shut down U.S. military bases
        5. Movement encouraged other Muslims to undertake terrorist actions
      4. Iran-Iraq war, 1980-1988
        1. Iraqi president Saddam Hussein launched attack on Iran in 1980
        2. War dragged on till 1988; killed one million soldiers
        3. Next, Iraqis invaded Kuwait in 1990, inciting Gulf War, 1991
    3. Politics and Economics in Latin America
      1. Mexico after the revolution of 1910-1920
        1. Liberal constitution of 1917 guaranteed land and liberty to Mexico
        2. Subsoil assets claimed by Mexican government
        3. Redistribution of land to peasants by government legalized
        4. After 1930s, conservative governments dominated by Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
      2. Argentina: return to military rule
        1. Leader of Latin American struggle against U.S. and European intervention
        2. Gradual shift to free elections, but often reverted to military rulers
        3. Militarist Juan Peron was elected president, 1946; immensely popular
        4. His wife, Eva Peron, was national heroine for her service to the poor
        5. Peron ousted in 1955; three decades of military dictators followed
        6. Late 1970s, death squads conducted "dirty war" against dissidents
      3. Guatemala: destabilized
        1. Cold war shaped U.S. policies in Central America
        2. Guatemalan president Arbenz nationalized land held by United Fruit Co., 1953
        3. CIA engineered overthrow of Arbenz and armed Colonel Castillo Armas
        4. Castillo Armas established brutal military dictatorship; was assassinated, 1957
      4. Nicaragua: American interference
        1. Somoza regime (1934-1980), brutal dictators but anticommunist U.S. ally
        2. Overthrown by Marxist Sandinistas in 1980
        3. Carter administration did not interfere, restored Panama Canal to Panama
        4. Reagan reversed policy; supported Contras, rebels opposed to the Sandinistas
        5. Costa Rican president negotiated end to Contra war, new coalition government
      5. Patterns of economic dependence in Latin America
        1. Need to reorient economies from export to internal development
        2. Raul Prebisch, Argentine economist, crafted theory of "economic dependency"
          (a) developed nations controlled world economy at expense of undeveloped ones
          (b) developing nations needed to protect domestic industries
    4. War and peace in sub-Saharan Africa
      1. Aftermath of decolonization
        1. Organization of African Unity was created in 1963 to maintain peace and promote pan-African unity
        2. Artificial boundaries imposed by colonialism were ruled inviolable
        3. Ghana and many other states became one-party dictatorships
      2. Transformation of South Africa
        1. Gained independence in 1901, but denied civil rights to black population
        2. South African economy strong, both mining and industry; prospered during WWII
        3. Black workers demanded political change
      3. Apartheid: harsh legal system imposed in 1948, designed to keep races separate
        1. 87 percent of South African land was for white residents, others classified by race
        2. African National Congress, led by Nelson Mandela, launched campaign to protest apartheid
        3. Severe government repression provoked international opposition after 1960
        4. Black agitation and international sanctions brought end to apartheid in 1989
        5. 1994, under new constitution, Mandela won free election as first black president
      4. Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire)
        1. First prime minister, a Marxist, killed in a CIA-backed coup, 1961
        2. Dictator Mobutu ruled from 1965 to 1997; plundered Zaire's economy
        3. Mobutu ruled Zaire in dictatorial fashion and amassed huge personal fortune
        4. Lawrence Kabila ousted Mobutu in 1997, changed country's name back to the Congo
        5. Kabila killed, 2001; replaced by his son Joseph; no elections yet
      5. Developing economies of Africa
        1. Africa has 10 percent of world's population but less than 1 percent of industrial output
        2. Rich in minerals, raw materials, agricultural resources
        3. Lacking in capital, technology, foreign markets, and managerial class
        4. Rapid population growth compounds problems
Traditions & Encounters, 5e
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