Traditions and Encounters, AP Edition (Bentley), 5th Edition

Chapter 35: Nationalism and Political Identities in Asia, Africa, and Latin America

Interactive Map Quiz


Map A. Struggle for Control in China

This interactive map illustrates how the civil war in China, between Communist and Nationalist factions, combined with Japanese territorial expansion in Asia to create an environment fraught with violence and confusion.

When Japan was awarded domain over Korea after the Russo-Japanese War, it began to set its sights on full control of Manchuria. The catalyst of Japan’s invasion was the Mukden Incident, which occurred on September 18, 1931. Chinese terrorists were accused of blowing up a section of a Japanese railroad when, in fact, the Japanese themselves had done it in order to provide themselves with some justification for the annexation of Manchuria. Their goal was accomplished and, as Japan withdrew from the League of Nations, they continued to press on into China.

Briefly describe the major shifts in thinking after World War I, especially in Europe. Why does the textbook call it "the age of anxiety" and stress the pervasiveness of disillusionment and pessimism? What kinds of thinking did people give up and what news kinds of thought did they embrace?


What were the primary causes of the global Great Depression? Why was it global in nature and not isolated to the places where it began?


How did rising Indian and Chinese nationalism express itself in each country? Why were those expressions different?


Why were non-capitalistic and non-democratic models for governments and economies so appealing to so many people in the world during the period 1919-1939? What were the most viable alternatives to democratic-capitalism? Where were these alternatives attempted and how successful do you think they were?


Map B. U.S. in Latin America

Under President Theodore Roosevelt and subsequent administrations, the United States vigorously enforced the Monroe Doctrine's policy of preventing European nations from intervening in Latin American affairs. As an increasingly "iron-fisted neighbor," the United States frequently intervened in the region when internal disorder or an inability to meet obligations to the international financial community seemed likely to invite intervention by others. The construction of the Panama Canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans was Roosevelt's most cherished accomplishment, requiring equal parts of diplomatic, engineering, and military efforts in Panama and neighboring Central American countries.

How did the "Roosevelt corollary" change U.S. policies toward Latin America? Give three examples of nations affected by this shift in U.S. policy. What were the outcomes of this policy change?


How did the creation of the Panama canal reflect changing U.S. views of the region? How did U.S. policy help create the canal? Why was the canal such a significant economic and political achievement for the U.S.?


Create the front page of a Latin American newspaper for one day during this time period. What main stories would be featured about the U.S. role in the region? What view will your newspaper take of the events of this period?

Traditions & Encounters, 5e
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