Traditions and Encounters, AP Edition (Bentley), 5th Edition

Chapter 29: The Making of Industrial Society

Multiple Choice Quiz

Which of the following was NOT an economic advantage enjoyed by Britain in the eighteenth century?
A)abundant and accessible coal deposits
B)local sources of raw cotton
C)abundant skilled and unskilled labor
D)access to water transportation
E)sources of capital for investment
Cotton cloth was valued by European consumers in the eighteenth century because it
A)was rare and considered a luxury.
B)was comfortable and convenient.
C)was a British product and so considered patriotic.
D)lasted longer than wool.
E)All these answers are correct.
Improvements in transportation, such as the railroads and steamships,
A)lowered transportation costs.
B)linked industrial centers with overseas resources.
C)facilitated the movement of people as well as goods.
D)facilitated delivery of manufactured products to consumers.
E)All these answers are correct.
Which of the following was NOT a significant labor-saving invention in the production of cotton cloth?
A)the flying shuttle
B)the steam-driven spinning "mule"
C)chemical dyes
D)the power loom
E)the cotton gin
From the perspective of the worker, the factory system meant
A)better working conditions than piecework done at home.
B)better pay for skilled work.
C)greater opportunities for advancement within a free market system.
D)harsh discipline and close supervision.
E)an opportunity for families to work together.
From the perspective of the consumer, the factory system meant
A)cheaper manufactured goods.
B)lower-quality manufactured goods.
C)fewer choices in manufactured goods.
D)manufactured goods priced beyond the means of many consumers.
E)acute shortages of many manufactured items.
Rural laborers new to the factory had difficulty adjusting to the
A)relative freedom of the factory system.
B)segregation of men and women in the workplace.
C)absence of children in the workplace.
D)rigid timetables of industrial work.
E)All these answers are correct.
The Luddites were threatened by industrialization of what industry in particular?
A)iron works
D)steel works
The British maintained their head start in industrialization
A)by sabotaging the efforts of their competitors.
B)by forbidding the export of machinery and expertise.
C)through constant innovation and renovation.
D)through significant government support of industry.
E)All these answers are correct.
In what nation did the government give significant support to industry in the late nineteenth century?
E)United States
One advantage of the industrial corporation over the older joint-stock company was the
A)limited liability for investors.
B)possibility for government-sponsored monopoly.
C)ability to remain flexible and small-scale.
D)opportunity to improve the standard of living of many more workers.
E)All these answers are correct.
All of the following are examples of vertical organization EXCEPT
A)Standard Oil's control of all phases of petroleum production and distribution.
B)the Krupp firm's integration of mines, steel mills, and munitions plants.
C)the British East India Company's monopoly on the tea trade.
D)U.S. Steel's control of mines, steel mills, and railroad manufacture.
E)All these answers are correct.
The population of the industrial world grew dramatically in the nineteenth century, in part because
A)improved transportation networks resulted in cheaper food and therefore better diets.
B)families did not yet know how to limit the number of births.
C)new urban centers were healthier environments than were rural villages.
D)aggressive public health programs eradicated childhood diseases.
E)All these answers are correct.
By 1900, birthrates had sharply declined in most industrialized countries because
A)raising children was more expensive in an industrial society than in an agricultural one.
B)declining infant mortality meant that more of the children born were likely to survive.
C)improved health and nutrition reduced overall death rates.
D)married couples actively practiced birth control.
E)All these answers are correct.
Which of the following was NOT a typical inducement for Europeans to emigrate abroad in the nineteenth century?
A)famine in Ireland
B)difficult political, social, and economic circumstances in Europe generally
C)unemployment in Britain
D)anti-Semitism in Russia
E)economic opportunities in the United States
Middle-class family life in the new industrial society was characterized by
A)substantial social and political gains by women.
B)equal participation of men and women in the industrial economy.
C)gendered division of labor and space.
D)children leaving school to work in the mills at an early age.
E)All these answers are correct.
In Britain, one outcome of the laws against child labor in the late nineteenth century was that
A)all children were required to attend public school.
B)poor children were forced to do piecework at home.
C)children spent more time away from their parents than when they had been working.
D)working class parents were obliged to find childcare.
E)All these answers are correct.
In their critique of industrial capitalism, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels claimed that
A)the trade union movement would force industry to accept social reforms.
B)the most equitable and just society could be found in an industrial commune.
C)the bourgeois class needed to exercise responsibility toward their workers.
D)democracy had failed because most workers did not understand their true interests; a dictatorship would serve them better.
E)only a communist revolution would overcome the abuses of capitalism and create a just and equal society.
In response to socialist demands for social and economic reform, most governments
A)treated trade unions as illegal organizations.
B)supported business and prosecuted strikers.
C)passed laws restricting child labor.
D)extended the vote to the working class.
E)All these answers are correct.
Social reforms enacted by Germany in the late nineteenth century included all of the following EXCEPT
A)retirement pensions.
B)a minimum wage.
C)unemployment insurance.
D)medical insurance.
E)mandatory trade union membership.
Traditions & Encounters, 5e
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