Traditions and Encounters, AP Edition (Bentley), 5th Edition

Chapter 11: Mediterranean Society: The Roman Phase

Interactive Map Quiz


Map A. Growth of the Roman Empire

This interactive map details the expansion of the Roman Republic and Empire. The Roman Republic was created in 509 BCE, and lasted until 27 BCE, when the reign of Augustus began. During the period of the Republic, territorial gains were made throughout Italy, parts of Spain, and surrounding Carthage in northern Africa. After the defeat of Carthage in the Punic Wars, Rome became involved in many other localized wars, and sections of Greece and Anatolia came under Roman influence. Under the military leadership of Julius Caesar, Rome's imperial expansion reached its height. Caesar carried out many successful campaigns in Britain and Gaul, and, after his successes throughout Roman territory, he became heavily involved with Roman politics. Concerned with many issues of reform and centralization, he appointed himself dictator for life. His assassination led to a period of civil wars until 27 BCE. His successor, Caesar Augustus, came to power, and the Roman Republic became the Roman Empire. By the 2nd century CE, the empire encompassed the entire Mediterranean region, parts of the Middle East, Gaul, and the majority of Britain.

Examine the map closely. What factors account for the expansion of the Roman Republic?


Notice the location of the Roman roads. What was the importance of these roads for the empire? What can we learn about the empire based on their geographic locations?


The larger the Republic grew, the more fragmented the political system became. What factors would account for the problems faced by the Republic due to territorial gains? What other societies from previous chapters faced similar problems?


The Roman Empire was able to expand far more than any other previous empire. What factors account for this success? What technologies and innovations played major roles in this expansion?


Map B. Fall of the Roman Empire

During the 5th and 6th centuries C.E., the Roman Empire faced many challenges. By 395 the empire had been split into two provinces; the Western and Eastern Roman Empire. The Eastern Roman Empire, which eventually became the Byzantine Empire, remained centralized and survived into the 15th century. The Western Empire was attacked repeatedly by various invaders, and by 476, the region was under the rule of Odovacer, a Germanic chieftain. This interactive map details the boundaries of the two regions, and shows the different waves of Germanic invasions that led to the defeat of the Western Empire.

Compare the growth of the Roman empire during the Republican period versus the imperial period. What were the main locales of expansion during each era?


Identify the principal means by which the Romans manage to control and expand their empire over a large geographic areas.


Identify the principal differences between Mithraism and Christianity. Be sure to consider both religions basic beliefs and which groups each appealed to most.


Identify and then account for the basic differences between Greek and Roman societies and states? How, and why, did Roman society successfully build and maintain a far-reaching empire while Greeks mostly remained in their city-states?

Traditions & Encounters, 5e
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