The American Journey © 2007

Chapter 13: North and South

Chapter Overviews

In the first half of the nineteenth century industrialization and technology changed life in America. Steamboats, clipper ships, and steam locomotives improved transportation. The telegraph made communication faster. Innovations such as the McCormick reaper increased productivity on the nation's farms. The North was characterized by a growing factory system, larger cities, and a new wave of immigration.

The economy of the South also prospered between 1820 and 1860, but the South remained largely rural and agricultural. Its main cash crop was cotton. Those who lived in the South included wealthy planters, yeoman, and enslaved African Americans. Many of those who were enslaved tried to resist slavery through work slow-downs, escape, and even revolt. By 1860 there were great differences between the North and South.

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