Glencoe World History: Modern Times, California Edition
Nationalism Around the World
Nationalism was a major force in the Middle East, Africa, and India after World War I. In China, the Nationalists forced the Communists into retreat and formed a republic. An expansionist military took power in Japan. Economic crises led to military dictatorships throughout Latin America.
Section 1 Nationalism in the Middle East
World War I was the final blow for an Ottoman Empire in its decline since the late eighteenth century. One of its final acts was an act of genocide, the slaughter of Armenians seeking independence. Nationalist leaders in the collapsing empire established the independent states of Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia. Britain and France withdrew their promised support for Arab nationalists and set up British mandates in Iraq and Jordan, and French mandates in Lebanon and Syria. Saudi Arabia had vast supplies of newly discovered oil and suddenly attracted Western oil companies that would bring the kingdom untold wealth. Palestine became a site of conflict beginning with the British Balfour Declaration of 1917, which declared Palestine the site for a Jewish homeland. Tensions between Jews and Muslims worsened as Jewish immigrants fleeing Nazi persecution flooded Palestine.
Section 2 Nationalism in Africa and Asia
After World War I, Germany lost its African colonies to Britain and France. Violent suppression and the slow pace of reform in the colonies led many Africans to call for independence. Two African Americans, W.E.B. DuBois and Marcus Garvey, were influential in building African cultural awareness and Pan-African unity. Mohandas Gandhi built a large movement for Indian independence through nonviolence. Indian Muslims felt sidelined by the largest independence organization, the Indian National Congress, and called for a separate Muslim state. Rapid industrialization in Japan led to support for territorial expansion to improve Japan's access to raw materials and markets. After a period of pacifism prompted in part by pressure from the United States, Japan conquered Manchuria, and the military took control of the government. The Communist International helped build Communist parties in China and Southeast Asia.
Section 3 Revolutionary Chaos in China
As central authority collapsed in China, rival Nationalist and Communist Party forces briefly joined ranks. The two groups split after a Nationalist massacre of Communists. The Nationalists, led by Chiang Kai-shek, founded a new Chinese republic in 1928. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, went into hiding in the cities. Mao's plans, however, were for a revolution led by peasants. In 1933 Mao's forces used guerrilla tactics to break through Nationalist lines closing in on them. They then began the Long March to the last surviving Communist base. Chiang had plans for land reform and a Western-style constitutional government. To make Western ideas more acceptable, he blended them with Confucian themes. Although he did achieve some meaningful reforms, Chiang's support came mainly from the rural gentry and the urban middle class; his reforms did little to redistribute wealth.
Section 4 Nationalism in Latin America
American investors directly controlled many Latin American industries beginning in the 1920s. Latin American nationalists claimed that U.S. investments propped up the region's dictators. The Great Depression weakened regional economies and led to the creation of government-run industries, since Latin Americans could not afford many imported goods. Economic crises and instability prompted military leaders to overthrow the elected governments-which were dominated by small elites-and to establish authoritarian regimes. Dictators sometimes gained an urban following by promising better factory conditions. Industrialization became a core government project. Fascist symbols and nationalist slogans were used amid harsh political repression. In Mexico, a single-party state dominated society. The popular Depression-era leader Lázaro Cárdenas nationalized foreign-owned oil companies and redistributed land to Mexican peasants. Artists helped build national identity in many Latin American countries.