Business and Personal Law

Glossary – Academic Terms

acquired  Gained possession of
adhere  To carry out a plan, or an operation without deviation; to stick to
administer  To manage or direct
advantage  Benefit, profit, or gain
affected  Influenced by
alternative  A situation presenting a choice between two mutually exclusive possibilities
apparent  Appearing as such, seeming
assets  Property, tangible and intangible, including cash, inventories, and property rights
assign  To transfer to another
assume  To take on, adopt
assumption  Something taken for granted or accepted as true without proof
benefit  Something that promotes well-being; a useful aid
broadcast  To send out or communicate, especially by radio, television, or the Internet
capacity  Ability to perform or produce
ceremony  A formal act performed as prescribed by ritual or custom
certify  To confirm formally as true or genuine
commerce  The exchange or buying and selling of goods on a large scale
compensate  To make up for a loss
comply  To act in accordance with another’s command or request
comprehensive  Covering completely or broadly
conduct  To direct, manage, control, or carry out
confidential  Communicated or entrusted in secret
consent  To give approval
contain  To have as component parts; include or comprise
contempt  Open disrespect or willful disobedience of a court or legislative body
cooperation  The act of working together toward a common end or purpose
corruption  Impairment of integrity, morals, and honesty; promoting wrong by improper or illegal means
definite  Unquestionable; certain; precise
determine  To decide or settle conclusively or definitely
directive  An order or instruction, especially one issued by a central authority
discharge  To set aside; annul
disclose  To make known
dispensing  Distributing; dealing out in portions
distress  Anxiety or mental suffering
domestic  Relating to home or household, or to a specific state or country
dominant  Exercising the most influence or control
dormant  Inactive
download  Transfer data from a computer to another device
duplicate  Identically copied from an original
effective  In force; in effect
elective  A choice; an option
emission  A substance that is discharged
empathy  Understanding; being sensitive to
endowment  The act of furnishing with an income
exaggerate  To enlarge beyond the truth; overstate
exceed  To go beyond the limits of; surpass
exception  Something omitted, excluded, or neglected
exclude  To prevent from being included, considered, or accepted; reject
exclusive  Not divided or shared with others
expire  To come to an end; terminate
exploit  To make use of unfairly for one’s own advantaged
extent  The degree to which something is stretched out
foreseeable  Seen or known beforehand
genuine  Actually possessing the apparent attribute or character; authentic
gratuitous  Given or received without cost or obligation; free
impersonate  The assume the character or appearance of, especially fraudulently
impose  To force; to establish as compulsory; to apply by authority
impulse  An impelling force; an urge that prompts an unpremeditated act or feeling
incidental  Of a minor, casual, or subordinate nature
incompetence  Lack of physical or intellectual ability or qualifications
indicating  Serving as a sign, symptom, or token of; signifying
informal  Appropriate to ordinary, casual, or familiar use
infrastructure  The basic facilities, services, and installations needed for the function of a community, society, or a system such as the national electronic system
intent  The purpose to commit a wrongful act; meaning; significance
involved  Connected by participation or association
irrevocable  Impossible to take back
jeopardy  Exposure to loss or injury
loyal  Faithful to a person, ideal, custom, cause, or duty
malicious  Deliberately harmful; spiteful
mediator  One who intervenes between conflicting parties to bring about an agreement
motive  A need or desire that causes a person to act
mutual  Possessed in common; having the same relationship
objective  Uninfluenced by emotions or personal prejudices; factual
obligation  Something one is bound to legally or morally
option  Choice
permissible  Allowable
permission  Formal consent
perpetual  Continue for an unlimited time
persistent  Existing or remaining in the same state for an indefinitely long time; enduring
petition  A formal written application requesting a court for a specific judicial action
preemptive  Undertaken or initiated to deter or prevent an anticipated situation or occurrence
prevalent  Generally or widely accepted, practiced, or favored; widespread
proactive  Controlling a situation by causing something to happen rather than waiting to respond to it after it happens
process  A series of actions, changes, or functions bringing about a result
proportionate  Properly related in size, degree, or other measurable characteristics; corresponding
provision  A measure or requirement made beforehand
random  Having no specific pattern, purpose, or objective
reasonable  Moderate; fair; rational
reconcile  To make compatible or consistent; to balance, as a bank statement
reconciliation  Reestablishment of a relationship
register  To set down in writing; record; enter in a record
require  To impose an obligation on; compel
revoke  To void or annul by recalling, withdrawing, or reversing
routine  Habitual; regular
sabotage  Destruction of property or obstruction of normal operations
schedule  A plan for performing work or achieving an objective, specifying the order and allotted time for each part
signature  A distinctive mark or characteristic indicating identity
significant  Having or likely to have a major effect; important
similar  Having the same or some of the same characteristics
simulate  To have or take on the appearance, form, or sound of; imitate
solicit  To seek to obtain by persuasion, entreaty, or formal application
specify  To state in detail or as a condition
spouse  A marriage partner; a husband or wife
standard  A model, measure, or criterion
status  The legal character or condition of a person or thing
subscription  The completion of a legal instrument (such as a contract or deed) by signing it so that it becomes legally binding and enforceable
subsidize  Supported materially or financially
substitute  Something that takes the place of another; a replacement; a copy
supplement  Something added to complete a thing, make up for a deficiency, or extend or strengthen as whole
tangible  That which can be valued monetarily or touched; real
unanimous  Having the agreement of all
unauthorized  Not having official permission or approval
unconditional  Without conditions or limitations; absolute
uniform  Conforming to one principle, standard, or rule; consistent
usury  Charging more than the maximum legal interest rate
vacate  To make legally void
voluntary  Done or undertaken of one’s own free will
waiver  Intentional relinquishment or a right, claim, or privilege
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