In the pelagic realm, most primary production occurs in the epipelagic neritic zone.
Primary production is highest
|A)||Throughout the photic zone.|
|B)||In the photic zone of neritic waters.|
|C)||In the photic zone of oceanic waters.|
|D)||Only at the air-water interface.|
The planktonic animals that divers are likely to see are
|A)||Phytoplankton like diatoms.|
|B)||Megaplankton like jellyfish.|
|C)||Macroplankton like krill.|
|D)||Meroplankton like fish larva.|
Picoplankton-sized primary producers in the epipelagic are dominated by prochlorophytes and cyanobacteria.
Krill are not as numerous as copepods but are more likely to be eaten by large consumers such as birds, fishes, and whales.
Salps and larvaceans trap phytoplankton using.
Nitrogen-fixing phytoplankton may be
Many copepods feed by
|B)||Creating water currents that draw in cells.|
|C)||Using their antennae to strain the water.|
|D)||Hopping on top of their prey.|
Members of the holoplankton spend part of their life cycle in the plankton and their adult lives on the sea floor.
Protozoans such as foraminiferans are considered to be zooplankton because
|A)||They are eukaryotic.|
|B)||They are multicellular.|
|C)||They belong to the Kingdom Animalia.|
|D)||They graze on other types of plankton.|
Planktivorous nekton are the smaller species of fish only.
The zoea larva of a crab is planktonic but it will develop into a larger adult form, this is an example of:
Salps and larvaceans
|A)||Are chordates, like the tunicates.|
|B)||Are gelatinous medusae.|
|C)||Start life as bottom-dwelling larvae.|
|D)||Use tentacles to catch prey.|
Which of these means is not an effective floatation mechanism?
Drag upon the water column that slows sinking can be increased with spines and flat shapes.
Vertically migrating zooplankton
|A)||Stop migrating if predators are not present.|
|B)||Come to the surface by day.|
|C)||Rarely live at more than 10 m.|
|D)||Feed while at depth, not at the surface.|
Lipids are a major form of energy storage material that adds buoyancy to epipelagic organisms such as copepods and diatoms.
Many zooplankton animals such as jellyfish and salps use counter-shading and are dark blue or green on top and white or silver on the bottom.
Zooplankton are too small to be effective vertical migrators, since this behavior involves a long-distance swim each day.
The growth of phytoplankton in many temperate waters is characterized by
|A)||An annual peak in the summer, when light is most optimal; and an annual low in the winter, when light, but not nutrients, is limiting.|
|B)||An annual peak in the spring, when nutrients and light are both sufficient; and an annual low in the winter, when light, but not nutrients, is limiting.|
|C)||An annual peak in the summer, when water temperatures are most optimal; and an annual low in the fall, when light, temperature and nutrients are limiting.|
|D)||An annual peak in the winter, when nutrients may be high; and an annual low in the summer, when light and nutrients are limiting.|
The red meat of tuna, salmon, and other pelagic fish is due to high levels of __________ in their bodies.
|A)||Nitrates to make nucleic acids|
|B)||Lipids for floatation|
|C)||Myoglobin to store oxygen|
|D)||Phosphates for the production of chlorophyll.|
To keep tunas and other pelagic fishes on display, public aquarium use big circular tanks. This is because
|A)||Pelagic fishes usually swim in circles.|
|B)||These fishes have no adaptations to avoid solid physical structures, such as walls.|
|C)||The fishes prefer to swim away from viewers.|
|D)||Circular tanks provide better hiding place than square ones.|
To achieve neutral buoyancy, a shark uses its
|D)||Exclusion of heavy ions.|
The lateral line of fishes detects vibrations in the water.
Red muscle in fishes is used for constant cruising, while white muscle is used for quick bursts of speed.
The rete mirabile is an arrangement of blood vessels used to:
|A)||Increase swimming speed|
|C)||To reduce heat loss|
|D)||To facilitate vertical migration|
The fastest pelagic fishes have been clocked at speeds of _____ or more.
Tunas have all of these features except
|C)||A high, narrow tail.|
Most epipelagic food chains are fairly simple and have fewer trophic-levels than other marine food-chains
One of the shortest known pelagic food chains involves
|A)||Viruses and phytoplankton.|
|B)||Phytoplankton and carnivorous copepods.|
|C)||Krill and whales.|
|D)||Small fishes and tuna.|
Marine snow refers to the large amount of disolved organic material that falls from the epipelagic zone in the oceans.
The major limiting nutrient for primary production in oceans overall is thought to be: nitrogen.
Because the tropics are much warmer and have more sunlight, tropical waters are typically much more productive than polar and temperate waters.
A major factor in creating upwelling is:
|C)||The Southern Oscillation|
Which of these does not apply to areas with upwelling?
|A)||The water is rich in nutrients.|
|B)||The water is cold.|
|C)||Upwelling occurs year-round.|
|D)||Fishing is usually good.|
A beneficial result of an El Nino Event is
|A)||An increase in upwelling in the southeastern Pacific.|
|B)||Lessening of storms.|
|C)||An increase in warm-water fishes.|
|D)||Increased rainfall in California|
Harmful algal blooms can cause all of these problems except
|A)||Release of poisons into the water.|
|B)||Harboring bacteria that cause cholera.|
|C)||Sore throats and eye irritation.|
Red tides: will most adversely effect which of these fisheries?
|D)||Clams and mussels|
In most temperate waters, how many algal blooms per year are there?
|A)||One that lasts all year|
|B)||One in summer|
|C)||Two: one in spring and one in fall|
|D)||Four: one per season|