Biology (Raven), 10th Edition

Chapter 59: Conservation Biology


Why are endemic species "hotspots" important for the preservation of biodiversity?
A)They are experiencing a high rate of growth.
B)On 1.4 percent of the world's land surface there is 44 percent of all vascular plants and 35 percent of the world's terrestrial vertebrates.
C)They contain species found only in that area.
D)The are found in areas of high, human population growth.
E)No choice is correct.
What environmental problems arise when biodiversity is destroyed?
A)increased ecosystem instability
B)lessened ecosystem productivity
C)promotion of desertification
D)promotion of waterlogging
E)All of these are correct.
Why is the decline in amphibian populations of particular concern?
A)Because of their aesthetic value.
B)Because they have declined in well-protected, unpolluted habitats.
C)Because they are very sensitive to the environment.
D)The decline raises the question of whether or not the world's environment is in serious trouble.
E)More than one answer is correct.
What are the merits of captive breeding programs followed by re-introduction of a species into the wild?
A)They can preserve unique genetic variation that otherwise would have been lost.
B)They can restore the ecosystem to a healthy state.
C)There are none; they usually fail.
D)They can preserve unique genetic variation, and they can restore the ecosystem to a healthy state.
E)No choice is correct.
Why are corridors linking undisturbed areas of habitat an effective way of helping preserve biodiversity?
A)They effectively increase population sizes.
B)They allow recolonization if a population disappears in one area.
C)They can provide protection to migrating species.
D)They allow for genetic exchange.
E)All choices are correct.
The fossil record shows that 99 percent of all species that have ever existed are now extinct. Why then is there concern over the current rate of extinction?
A)It is estimated that no more than 15 percent of the world's eukaryotic organisms have been discovered. This would leave a huge, loss of potential materials for medicine, industry and science should a substantial percent of the remaining species go extinct.
B)Current rates of extinction are rapid.
C)Current rates of extinction are accelerating.
D)It has been calculated that as much as 20 percent of the world's biodiversity may be lost by 2050.
E)All choices are correct.
What is the most important reason for maintaining biodiversity?
A)direct economic benefits
B)indirect economic benefits
C)ethical values
D)aesthetic values
E)All choices are correct.
What is the major factor responsible for causing species extinctions today?
A)introduced species
C)habitat loss
D)catastrophic disturbances
E)loss of genetic variability
What is NOT an attribute of the flying fox?
A)a keystone species
B)a fruit-eating bat
C)pollinates many plants
D)key disperser of seeds
E)All choices are attributes.
True or false: Destroyed habitats can sometimes be restored if there is something left to preserve. Clear-cutting can leave little behind to conserve.
Which of the following is NOT a reason small populations are particularly vulnerable to extinction?
A)not equipped to survive catastrophes
B)hunting pressure
C)low probability of successful mating
D)lack of genetic variability
E)All choices are reasons.
Where have the majority of extinctions in recent times occurred?
A)in Africa
B)in South America
C)on the northern continents
D)on islands
E)in the oceans
What is the key attribute of a "hotspot"?
B)global warming
D)endemic species
E)endangered species
Approximately what percentage of prescription and nonprescription drugs on the market today contain active ingredients extracted from plants and animals?
A)20 percent
B)40 percent
C)60 percent
D)75 percent
E)80 percent
Which of the following is NOT an attribute of the trophic cascade involving whales and sea otters?
A)loss of sea otters in Alaska
B)proliferation of pollock
C)loss of sea urchins
D)loss of kelp forests
E)All choices are attributes.
What are the key factors driving down the population of woodland songbirds?
B)fragmentation of breeding habitat
C)nesting failures
D)overexploitation and fragmentation of breeding habitat
E)fragmentation of breeding habitat and nesting failures
Select the outcome that is NOT a consequence of loss of habitat.
A)lowered population numbers
B)fragmentation of the population
C)increasing edge effects
D)lessened vulnerability to predation
E)All choices are consequences.
Which of the following is NOT an attribute of a microclimate?
B)annual precipitation
E)All choices are attributes.
True or false: Edge effects can affect a population but not significantly degrade its chances of survival.
Which of the following is NOT a way in which humans adversely affect natural habitats?
D)habitat fragmentation
E)All choices are ways humans adversely affect natural habitats.
For mammals, which is the single biggest known cause of extinctions?
A)habitat loss
C)species introduction
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