Biology (Raven), 10th Edition

Chapter 55: Ecology of Individuals and Populations


To what sort of population does the logistic model apply?
A)population in a major growth phase
B)population with abundant resources
C)population in decline
D)population approaching their carrying capacity
E)No choice is correct.
What adjustment do humans experience after moving from low altitude to a high altitude?
A)an evolutionary adaptation
B)a physiological response
C)a behavioral response
D)a morphological change
E)All choices are correct.
Select the statement that is NOT true of populations.
A)Every population has a geographic distribution or range.
B)Population ranges are static over time.
C)The range can be very limited as for example a single pond.
D)Each population has its own requirements, such as temperature or humidity.
E)All choices are untrue statements.
True or false: It is generally the case that larger organisms have longer generation times.
Select the type of life history that natural selection favors.
A)life history that maximizes reproductive rate
B)life history that maximizes survival
C)life history that maximizes parental care
D)life history that maximizes lifetime reproductive success
E)All choices are correct.
What is the definition of carrying capacity?
A)an innate property of a species
B)depends on the growth rate of a species
C)the maximum number of individuals that an environment can support
D)changes over time
E)All choices are correct.
True or false: Population cycles can be regulated by both density dependent and density independent effects.
What population growth pattern obtains though human history?
E)logistic until 300 years ago; exponential from then on
Select the environmental element that is not a critical factor in determining which organisms live where.
E)All choices are key elements.
Which of the following is the most important selective advantage of a metapopulation structure?
A)It facilitates uniform spacing of individuals and thereby prevents overcrowding.
B)Metapopulations can help prevent long-term extinction through continuous colonization of empty patches.
C)It facilitates random spacing upon a more varied environment and thereby ensures resource availability.
D)It reduces the risk of predation.
E)No choice is correct.
What is true about a type III survivorship curve?
A)Individuals are equally likely to die at any age.
B)Mortality rates rise steeply later in life.
C)Only a small proportion of individuals survive to reproductive age.
D)Each individual produces a small number of offspring.
E)More than one of these is correct.
Which type of life history strategy is more advantageous: semelparity or iteroparity and why?
A)Semelparity because reproduction is assured.
B)Iteroparity because the total number of offspring produced over the individual's life will be greater.
C)Semelparity because the total number of offspring produced over the individual's life will be greater.
D)Neither; they are equivalent because they represent the trade-off between age and fecundity.
E)Iteroparity because reproduction is assured.
What is NOT true of a population undergoing logistic growth?
A)It will stabilize at the carrying capacity.
B)Populations eventually their carrying capacity.
C)The carrying capacity depends on the size of the population.
D)Growth to carrying capacity is typically characterized by an s-shaped growth curve.
E)It has an initial exponential growth phase.
The population cycles of the North American Snowshoe Hare and the Canada Lynx track each other closely. What would happen if, within an experimental enclosure, food for the hares is added to prevent food shortages but no predators are added?
A)The hare population will increase and stabilize.
B)The hare population will cycle as before but at a higher population number.
C)There will be no change.
D)The hare population will eventually perish.
E)It's not possible to predict because a key factor is not known.
If the total ecological footprint for the global population were to exceed the global carrying capacity, what prediction would be supported if no action were taken?
A)Death rates will increase.
B)Eventually death rates will equal birth rates.
C)Exponential population growth will halt.
D)Population will stabilize when the global ecological footprint equals the global carrying capacity.
E)All choices are supported predictions.
Select the statement that is NOT correct concerning biotic potential.
A)Biotic potential is the rate at which a population of a particular species increase when no limits are placed on its rate of growth.
B)The biotic potential of any population is exponential.
C)The biotic potential of any population is exponential except when the rate of increase remains constant.
D)The exponential growth that characterizes biotic potential is explosive.
E)All statement are correct.
True or false: Age at first reproduction correlates with life span in that longer-lived species put off reproduction longer.
Select the statement that is incorrect concerning demography.
A)Demography is the quantitative study of populations.
B)Demography studies how the size of a population changes through time.
C)One type of demographic study examines whether an entire population is increasing, decreasing or remaining constant.
D)One type of demographic study examines units of the population and focuses on the factors affecting death and birth rates for each unit.
E)There is no incorrect choice.
In a source-sink metapopulation, if the poorer habitats are not bolstered in population by the sources what is the consequence?
A)The inhabitants of the poorer habitat move to the better areas.
B)Nothing changes.
C)The growth rate for the poorer habitat stabilizes on its own but more slowly than it would with help from sources. It then begin positive growth.
D)The poorer habitat experiences negative growth followed by extinction.
E)No choice is correct.
In the life table of the annual bluegrass, how many seeds are produced in 24 months per member of the cohort?
Concerning production of offspring, select the statement that is NOT true.
A)The number of offspring that survive to reproduce is more important than the number of offspring.
B)In many species the larger the offspring the more likely it will survive.
C)The most common strategy is to produce as many offspring as possible.
D)Number of offspring and investment per offspring is balanced to ensure the maximum number of offspring.
E)No choice is incorrect.
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