Biology (Raven), 10th Edition

Chapter 44: Sensory Systems


Select the correct statement about receptor potentials.
A)It is a depolarization of a sensory receptor.
B)It increases in size with distance from its source.
C)It always causes an action potential.
D)It only occurs above a threshold value of the stimulus.
E)All of the statements are correct.
What would be the consequence(s) of having a mutation that blocked the flow of cations, chiefly sodium and calcium ions, into transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels?
A)Sensory neurons would not fire in response to temperature changes, from hot to cold and from intense to mild.
B)Sensory neurons would continually fire.
C)The individual would feel pain if subject to high temperatures.
D)The individual would be very sensitive to high temperatures.
What would happen if you had an unusually short basilar membrane in the cochlea?
A)Your sense of balance would be affected.
B)You would not be able to detect very high frequency sounds.
C)You would not be able to detect very low frequency sounds.
D)All sounds would be muffled.
E)All statements are correct.
Select the statement that correctly explains how salty and sour tastes are produced within taste buds.
A)The responsible chemicals act indirectly by binding to G protein-coupled receptors.
B)The responsible chemicals act directly on sensory neurons.
C)The responsible chemicals act directly through ion channels.
D)The responsible chemicals act directly by binding to G protein-coupled receptors.
E)None of the statements are correct.
Select the statement that correctly notes conditions in the vertebrate eye photoreceptor cells when it is dark.
A)cGMP levels are high.
B)cGMP levels are low.
C)Phosphodiesterase is stimulated by a G protein activated by Rhodopsin.
D)An influx of Ca+ ions is prevented.
E)Downstream bipolar cells are depolarized.
Homing pigeons have the ability to detect the Earth's magnetic field and use it for orientation when flying under overcast conditions. Consider a homing pigeon that orients toward the Earth's magnetic east. How would such a pigeon respond if placed in a darkened cage that is both shielded from magnetic fields by steel and rotated 90 degrees, clockwise?
A)It will attempt to fly toward the Earth's magnetic east.
B)It will attempt to fly toward the Earth's magnetic west.
C)It will show little interest in any one direction.
D)It will attempt to fly toward the Earth's magnetic south.
E)It's impossible to predict what will happen.
Which of the following statements correctly describes what happens for all different types of sensory receptors as the intensity of the stimulus increases?
A)The amplitude of the action potential increases.
B)The frequency of the action potentials increase.
C)The threshold level for the action potential decreases.
D)The frequency of the action potentials decreases.
E)None of the statements is correct.
Which of the following is NOT a mechanoreceptor?
True or false: The detection of sound waves works better in air than in water.
True or false: Flies taste with their feet.
Which phyla have independently evolved well-developed, image-forming eyes?
A)platyhelminthes, arthropods, mollusks, chordates
B)arthropods, mollusks, echinoderms, chordates
C)annelids arthropods, mollusks, chordates
D)annelids, arthropods, chordates
E)None of these is correct.
Which of the following electromagnetic stimuli can be detected by some vertebrates?
A)infrared radiation
B)magnetic fields
C)electric currents
D)All of the selections are correct.
E)None of the selections are correct.
Of the following stimuli, which can a proprioceptor detect?
Which are the most sensitive vertebrate chemoreceptors?
A)organs of Corti in bats
B)organs of Corti in humans
C)rods and cones of mammals
D)olfactory receptors of mammals
E)taste receptors in fish
Where are the receptor cells for hearing located in humans?
A)tympanic membrane
C)semicircular canals
D)Eustachian tube
E)oval window
Receptors can be grouped into three major categories. Select the category that is not one of them.
E)None of the selections fall into a major category.
As a sound grows in intensity while remaining at one frequemcy, what happens on the basilar membrane?
A)The basilar membrane vibrates more toward the base.
B)The basilar membrane vibrates more toward the apex.
C)The basilar membrane vibrates more vigorously without shifting position toward the base, middle or apex.
D)The increased intensity does not affect the basilar membrane.
Select the correct description of the semicircular canals.
A)There are three of them all oriented in the same direction but sensitive to all possible head motions.
B)There are six of them organized in three pairs with each pair sensitive to one kind of motion, such as up or down.
C)There are three stacked in a random fashion; all contributing to fluid flow through the utricle and saccule which interpret the direction of head movement from the resulting fluid flow.
D)There are three oriented in different planes so that angular acceleration can be detected.
Sour taste is due to which of the following?
A)sodium ions
D)absence of salty and sweet stimuli
True or false: The axons of the neurons that detect smells in the lining of the nasal passages transmit impulses directly to the brain via the olfactory nerve.
Which statement is not correct concerning rods and cones?
A)Rods are responsible for black and white vision.
B)Cones are responsible for color vision.
C)Most of the rods and cones are concentrated in the fovea.
D)Cones are responsible for high visual acuity or sharpness.
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