Human Geography: Landscapes of Human Activities, 11th Edition (Fellmann)

Chapter 3: Spatial Interaction and Spatial Behavior

Multiple Choice Quiz

The two most common responses to eliminate the uncertainty of natural hazards are to transfer the uncertainty to a higher power and:
A)eliminate the hazard.
B)make it determinate and knowable.
C)move to a less hazardous area.
D)deny its reoccurrence.
Directional biases to information flows in North America tend to follow:
A)east west patterns.
B)north south patterns.
C)northeast southwest patterns.
D)northwest southeast patterns.
In the social applications of the gravity model, distance is usually measured by:
A)linear miles.
B)number of telephones.
C)intervening opportunities.
D)travel time or cost.
Which of the following would not be considered a reason to migrate for a contemporary American?
A)changes in career course
B)changes in life course
C)individual personality requirements
D)changes in political affiliation
With respect to migration fields:
A)areas near the point of origin constitute the largest segment.
B)the size of the destination is not a factor.
C)the movement of retirees to Florida is a good example.
D)they are the same as channelized migration flows.
City 1 (200,000 population) and City 2 (600,000 population) are 50 miles apart. The breaking point (BP) or boundary marking the outer edge of their respective trade areas is:
A)12.5 miles from each city.
B)18.3 miles from City 1.
C)28.9 miles from City 2.
D)32.3 miles from City 1.
An example of a pull factor for migration is:
A)a desire to escape war and persecution.
B)a higher-paying job in a nearby city.
C)overcrowding in major cities.
D)reduction of rural farm workers.
The length of time required to make a transcontinental telephone connection has declined from 14 minutes in 1920 to less than 30 seconds today. This is an example of:
A)critical distance.
B)space-time convergence.
C)space-cost convergence.
D)time-space prisms.
E)distance decay
A comparison of Figure 3.13(a) with Figure 3.13(b) would lead one to conclude that:
A)distance decay operates more strongly on the Old Order Mennonites.
B)Old Order Mennonites are lazier than cash-economy Canadians.
C)Old Order Mennonites have a longer critical distance.
D)rural cash-economy Canadians like to shop.
Of all types of trips taken by urban residents, that which is least influenced by distance decay is:
A)personal business trips.
B)school trips.
C)shopping trips.
D)work trips.
In most societies, the most mobile segment of the population is:
C)the middle aged.
D)young adults
All of the following are included in Ravenstein's laws of migration except:
A)most migration proceeds step-by-step.
B)most migrants go only a short distance.
C)most migration is urban to rural.
D)most migrants are adults.
The gravity model and the potential model differ from each other because:
A)the gravity model does not take distance into account.
B)the potential model makes no provision for size of places.
C)the potential model accounts for interaction between many places, while the gravity model deals with only two places at a time.
D)they do not differ at all.
The extent of individual activity space depends on all of the following except:
A)means of mobility.
B)opportunity for interaction.
C)stage in the life course.
D)strength of territoriality.
People choose to settle in hazardous areas for all of the following reasons except:
A)hazardous areas are often residentially desirable.
B)hazardous events are relatively rare.
C)no information is available about the natural hazards of any location.
D)with time, the memory of previous hazardous events fades.
Chain migration occurs when:
A)migrants go from rural areas to central cities in a series of less extreme locational changes.
B)an advance group of migrants, once established in a new area, is followed by second and subsequent migrations from the same home district.
C)large numbers of migrants return to their place of origin.
D)migrants respond to push and pull factors simultaneously.
California produces vegetables in wintertime for sale to markets in the East and Midwest. This would be explained by the principle of:
B)directional bias.
C)intervening opportunity.
D)distance decay.
Which of the following is not demonstrated by Figure 3.4?
A)Light truck trips in Chicago have a greater friction of distance than rail shipments in general.
B)The cost, by truck, is greater than the cost of shipping by rail.
C)The steeper the slope of the interaction curve the lower the friction of distance.
D)Volume of interaction decreases with increasing distance.
With respect to space-time prisms, they are steepest and spatially most narrow under which mode of transportation?
The value of a place as a migration destination is known as its:
A)critical distance.
B)directional bias.
C)place utility.
D)spatial search.
The presence or absence of connecting channels strongly affects the likelihood that spatial interaction will occur. This is an indication of:
A)distance bias.
B)network bias.
C)directional bias.
D)critical distance.
Female migrants are motivated primarily by:
A)the desire to find marriage partners.
B)push factors associated with civil wars.
C)economic pushes and pulls.
D)changes in the life cycle.
Which of the following is not one of the three interrelated considerations in transferability as an expression of the mobility of a commodity?
A)the characteristics and value of the product.
B)the distance measured, in time and money penalties, over which it must be moved.
C)the ability of the commodity to bear the costs of movement.
D)the product's ability to meet the different regulatory laws of the areas through which it moves.
Because of the multiple work, child-care, and home maintenance tasks, women's trip behavior differs from that of men by the fact that they make:
A)more but shorter trips.
B)fewer but longer trips.
C)fewer but shorter trips.
D)more but longer trips.
After work and family proximity, the factors most often reported as a reason for interstate moves by adults is:
B)standard of living.
C)political system.
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