What theological concerns prompted Martin Luther's challenge of the authority of the Catholic Church? What specific reforms did he advocate?
What were the circumstances of the English Reformation?
By the end of the sixteenth century, which European countries had become Protestant and which had remained Catholic?
What are some the reasons suggested for the widespread persecution of suspected witches in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?
Why was Charles V, despite such vast holdings, unable to establish a durable empire? What forces worked against such an empire in the sixteenth century?
How did European monarchs increase their power in the early modern era? What are some of the common characteristics of the new monarchs?
What is the fundamental difference between absolute monarchy and a constitutional government?
What factors encouraged the evolution of a constitutional government in England and the Netherlands?
How did Louis XIV maintain control over the nobles of France? What were some of the structures of absolutism during his reign?
What aspects of European culture did Peter I seek to graft onto Russian society? What aspects did he reject?
What factors led to the dramatic population growth of Europe between 1500 and 1700?
What are the characteristics of capitalism in the early modern age? What financial innovations supported the growth of capitalism in Europe?
What are some of the social changes that resulted from the growth of capitalism? What groups would have been most threatened by or resistant to these changes?
Three great minds collaborated to shatter the ancient Ptolemaic view of the universe. Note the contributions of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. Who do you think made the most significant contribution? Who took the greatest risk?
In what ways can it be said that "Isaac Newton symbolized the scientific revolution"? What was his role in the Enlightenment?
What were the principle concerns of the philosophes of the Enlightenment? What solution did they propose?