Who discovered the principle of classical conditioning?
|C)||John B. Watson|
Ivan Pavlov used the term unconditioned to refer to __________.
|A)||a stimulus or event that increases the likelihood that behavior will be repeated|
|B)||learning from the consequences of behavior|
|C)||stimuli and the automatic, involuntary responses they caused|
|D)||the process in which reinforcement is used to sculpt new responses out of old ones|
The dog in Pavlov's experiments started to salivate when it heard the sound of a tuning fork. The dog was exhibiting ___________.
|A)||an unconditioned response|
|B)||an unconditioned stimulus|
|C)||a conditioned response|
|D)||a conditioned stimulus|
In classical conditioning, generalization refers to _____________.
|A)||the ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli|
|B)||responding similarly to a range of similar stimuli|
|C)||the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response|
|D)||the reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction|
Operant conditioning can be defined in any of the following ways EXCEPT_____________.
|A)||it is the study of how voluntary behavior is affected by its consequences|
|B)||it occurs when a person or animal operates on or causes some change in the environment|
|C)||it is a form of learning closely associated with the psychologist B.F. Skinner|
|D)||it utilizes modeling to achieve learning|
When teaching a dog a trick, we use treats as _____________.
|A)||a positive reinforcement to operant conditioning|
|B)||a neutral stimulus in classical conditioning|
|C)||a secondary reinforcement to operant conditioning|
|D)||part of the response chain|
Slot machines represent what kind of reinforcement schedule?
If a child has a tantrum because he doesn't want to go to sleep, and the parents allow the child to stay awake, __________ has occurred.
A dolphin that has been taught to search for undersea mines demonstrates what kind of learning?
Disadvantages of using aversive stimuli (punishment) to change behavior include all the following EXCEPT ______________.
|A)||aversive stimuli can produce unwanted side effects|
|B)||people learn to avoid the person delivering the aversive consequences|
|C)||punishment is likely to suppress, rather than eliminate, inappropriate behavior|
|D)||punishment usually leads to the increase, or repetition, of the inappropriate behavior|
Each of the following statements is true EXCEPT ________________.
|A)||social learning involves how people make decisions and act upon the information available to them|
|B)||latent learning and learned helplessness are examples of modeling|
|C)||social learning consists of cognitive learning and modeling|
|D)||behavior modification uses learning principles to change people's actions or feelings|
Modeling includes which of the following types of learning?
|A)||observational learning and learned helplessness|
|B)||observational learning and disinhibition|
|C)||latent learning and imitation|
|D)||latent learning and learned helplessness|
Latent learning is characterized by each of the following EXCEPT _______________.
|A)||it is not immediately observable as a change in behavior at the time of learning|
|B)||it is not usually reinforced when learning occurs|
|C)||it leads to depression and a sense of helplessness|
|D)||it utilizes a cognitive map|
Computer-assisted instruction breaks instruction down into "frames;" each time a student shows that he or she has learned the information in a frame, the student is given positive reinforcement in the form of new information. This is an example of ______________.
An example of a token economy would be _____________________.
|A)||a rat being rewarded a food pellet when it presses down on a bar|
|B)||a dog salivating when it hears a tuning fork|
|C)||a player being rewarded coins from a slot machine|
|D)||a chimpanzee's learned behavior being rewarded with poker chips with which it can "buy" peanuts|
Behavior modification works best, psychologists believe, when people set up their own set of rewards and punishments to shape their thoughts and actions. This agreement with oneself is called _________________.
|A)||a behavioral contract|