Understanding Psychology

Chapter 9: Learning: Principles and Applications

Multiple Choice Quiz

Who discovered the principle of classical conditioning?
A)Ivan Pavlov
B)B.F. Skinner
C)John B. Watson
D)Edward Tolman
Ivan Pavlov used the term unconditioned to refer to __________.
A)a stimulus or event that increases the likelihood that behavior will be repeated
B)learning from the consequences of behavior
C)stimuli and the automatic, involuntary responses they caused
D)the process in which reinforcement is used to sculpt new responses out of old ones
The dog in Pavlov's experiments started to salivate when it heard the sound of a tuning fork. The dog was exhibiting ___________.
A)an unconditioned response
B)an unconditioned stimulus
C)a conditioned response
D)a conditioned stimulus
In classical conditioning, generalization refers to _____________.
A)the ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli
B)responding similarly to a range of similar stimuli
C)the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response
D)the reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction
Operant conditioning can be defined in any of the following ways EXCEPT_____________.
A)it is the study of how voluntary behavior is affected by its consequences
B)it occurs when a person or animal operates on or causes some change in the environment
C)it is a form of learning closely associated with the psychologist B.F. Skinner
D)it utilizes modeling to achieve learning
When teaching a dog a trick, we use treats as _____________.
A)a positive reinforcement to operant conditioning
B)a neutral stimulus in classical conditioning
C)a secondary reinforcement to operant conditioning
D)part of the response chain
Slot machines represent what kind of reinforcement schedule?
If a child has a tantrum because he doesn't want to go to sleep, and the parents allow the child to stay awake, __________ has occurred.
A)aversive control
B)classical conditioning
C)escape conditioning
A dolphin that has been taught to search for undersea mines demonstrates what kind of learning?
B)classical conditioning
C)avoidance conditioning
D)social learning
Disadvantages of using aversive stimuli (punishment) to change behavior include all the following EXCEPT ______________.
A)aversive stimuli can produce unwanted side effects
B)people learn to avoid the person delivering the aversive consequences
C)punishment is likely to suppress, rather than eliminate, inappropriate behavior
D)punishment usually leads to the increase, or repetition, of the inappropriate behavior
Each of the following statements is true EXCEPT ________________.
A)social learning involves how people make decisions and act upon the information available to them
B)latent learning and learned helplessness are examples of modeling
C)social learning consists of cognitive learning and modeling
D)behavior modification uses learning principles to change people's actions or feelings
Modeling includes which of the following types of learning?
A)observational learning and learned helplessness
B)observational learning and disinhibition
C)latent learning and imitation
D)latent learning and learned helplessness
Latent learning is characterized by each of the following EXCEPT _______________.
A)it is not immediately observable as a change in behavior at the time of learning
B)it is not usually reinforced when learning occurs
C)it leads to depression and a sense of helplessness
D)it utilizes a cognitive map
Computer-assisted instruction breaks instruction down into "frames;" each time a student shows that he or she has learned the information in a frame, the student is given positive reinforcement in the form of new information. This is an example of ______________.
A)token economy
B)behavior modification
C)cognitive map
D)operant conditioning
An example of a token economy would be _____________________.
A)a rat being rewarded a food pellet when it presses down on a bar
B)a dog salivating when it hears a tuning fork
C)a player being rewarded coins from a slot machine
D)a chimpanzee's learned behavior being rewarded with poker chips with which it can "buy" peanuts
Behavior modification works best, psychologists believe, when people set up their own set of rewards and punishments to shape their thoughts and actions. This agreement with oneself is called _________________.
A)a behavioral contract
B)response chains
C)aversive control
D)escape conditioning
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