The Science of Psychology: An Appreciative View, 2nd Edition (King)

Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion

Key Terms

motivation  The force that moves people to behave, think, and feel the way they do.
instinct  An innate (unlearned) biological pattern of behavior that is assumed to be universal throughout a species.
drive  An aroused state that occurs because of a physiological need.
need  A deprivation that energizes the drive to eliminate or reduce the deprivation.
homeostasis  The body's tendency to maintain an equilibrium, or steady state.
Yerkes-Dodson law  The psychological principle stating that performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal rather than either low or high arousal.
set point  The weight maintained when the individual makes no effort to gain or lose weight.
anorexia nervosa  Eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation.
bulimia nervosa  Eating disorder in which an individual (typically female) consistently follows a binge-and-purge eating pattern.
binge eating disorder (BED)  Eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of consuming large amounts of food during which the person feels a lack of control over eating.
hierarchy of needs  Maslow's theory that human needs must be satisfied in the following sequence: physiological needs, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization.
self-actualization  The motivation to develop one's full potential as a human being—the highest and most elusive of Maslow's proposed needs.
self-determination theory  Deci and Ryan's theory asserting that all humans have three basic, innate organismic needs: competence, relatedness, and autonomy.
intrinsic motivation  Motivation based on internal factors such as organismic needs (competence, relatedness, and autonomy), as well as curiosity, challenge, and fun.
extrinsic motivation  Motivation that involves external incentives such as rewards and punishments.
self-regulation  The process by which an organism effortfully controls behavior in order to pursue important objectives.
emotion  Feeling, or affect, that can involve physiological arousal (such as a fast heartbeat), conscious experience (thinking about being in love with someone), and behavioral expression (a smile or grimace).
polygraph  A machine, commonly called a lie detector, that monitors changes in the body, used to try to determine whether someone is lying.
James-Lange theory  The theory that emotion results from physiological states triggered by stimuli in the environment.
Cannon-Bard theory  The proposition that emotion and physiological reactions occur simultaneously.
two-factor theory of emotion  Schachter and Singer's theory that emotion is determined by two factors: physiological arousal and cognitive labeling.
facial feedback hypothesis  The idea that facial expressions can influence emotions as well as reflect them.
display rules  Sociocultural standards that determine when, where, and how emotions should be expressed.
negative affect  Unpleasant emotions such as anger, guilt, and sadness.
positive affect  Pleasant emotions such as joy, happiness, and interest.
broaden-and-build model  Fredrickson's model of positive emotion, stating that the function of positive emotions lies in their effects on an individual's attention and ability to build resources.
King: The Science of Psychology, 2nd Edition
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