Traditions and Encounters, AP Edition (Bentley), 5th Edition

Chapter 31: Societies at Crossroads

Interactive Map Quiz


Map A. The Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire was an Islamic empire that dominated much of the Mediterranean region from the fourteenth to the twentieth centuries. The empire was founded in 1281, but its great rise to power did not really occur until after the sacking of Constantinople. At that point, Mehmed II claimed Constantinople for the capital of the empire. At its largest phase, the empire encompassed the majority of the North African coast -- what is now Eastern Europe up through Hungary, Anatolia, and parts of the Persian Gulf. However, by the end of the eighteenth century the Ottoman Empire went into a decline, based on the fragmentation of what had once been one of the most impressive militaries in the West. Earlier in Ottoman history, the military utilized all of the most current technology in its corps; however, as conflict grew within the military, and different factions warred amongst themselves, it became impossible for the government to control the disintegration of the various units. When warfare broke out with Russia in the nineteenth century it became evident that what was once a great military power was now hopelessly overpowered. The empire continued its decline, losing much of its territory in the nineteenth century to Russia, Italy, Greece, and Great Britain. The end finally came during World War I, when the Allies defeated what was left of the Ottoman Empire. The territories of the empire were divided up between the victors, with Great Britain and France gaining control over the Middle East, and Greece gaining control over Anatolia.

Explain the role of religion in the social structure of the Islamic Empires.


Discuss how the introduction of new crops changed agricultural practices in the Ottoman Empire.


Place the construction of the city Fatehpur Sikri within the context of Islamic cultural development.


Map B. Imperial Russia

The phase of Russian history that is referred to as Imperial Russia stretches from the reign of Peter the Great in 1682 to the start of the Russian Revolution in 1917. This interactive map focuses on the empire during a great period of expansion in the eighteenth century. In the beginning of the eighteenth century, Peter the Great was able to defeat Sweden and gain the Baltic territories of Livonia, Estonia, and Ingria. From then on he assumed the title of Tsar, and Russia became an official empire. Though he had to cede some territory due to continuous wars with the Ottoman Empire, Peter was able to significantly increase Russia's territory during his reign. Russia again expanded under the rule of Catherine the Great, when the country gained access to the Black Sea. At this point in history the power of the Ottoman Empire was slowly dwindling, and Russia was also able to gain significant influence over the Balkan States.

How did Russia's relations with Western Europe influence its economic development?


Explain the causes of the Great Northern War.


How did economic factors structure the institution of serfdom?


Assess Russia's interaction with other cultures during this period. Did Russia gain from such points of contact, or did it lose?

Traditions & Encounters, 5e
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