Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology, 12th Edition (Shier)

Chapter 18: Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

Learning Outcomes

18.1 Introduction
1: Explain water and electrolyte balance.

18.2 Distribution of Body Fluids
2: Describe how body fluids are distributed in compartments.

18.3 Water Balance
3: List the routes by which water enters and leaves the body, and explain how water intake and output are regulated.

18.4 Electrolyte Balance
4: List the routes by which electrolytes enter and leave the body, and describe how electrolyte intake and output are regulated.

18.5 Acid-Base Balance
5: List the major sources of hydrogen ions in the body.
6: Distinguish between strong and weak acids and bases.
7: Explain how chemical buffer systems, the respiratory center, and the kidneys keep pH of body fluids relatively constant.

18.6 Acid-Base Imbalances
8: Describe the causes and consequences of increase or decrease in body fluid pH.

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