Which of the following factors will increase the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
|A)||constriction of the afferent arterioles|
|B)||increased plasma osmotic pressure|
|C)||increased capsular hydrostatic pressure|
|D)||constriction of the efferent arteriole|
All of the following will cause the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney to secrete renin except
|A)||decreased blood pressure|
|B)||increased sympathetic activity|
|C)||a need to conserve sodium and chloride ions|
|D)||increased parasympathetic activity|
How much fluid filters through the glomerulus in a 24-hour period?
|D)||45 gallons (180 liters)|
Which of the following substances is normally present in glomerular filtrate but not in urine?
Most of tubular reabsorption takes place in the
|A)||proximal convoluted tubule|
|B)||distal convoluted tubule|
|C)||descending limb of the nephron loop|
|D)||ascending limb of the nephron loop|
Water reabsorption from the kidney tubule is a passive process dependent on the reabsorption of
The permeability of the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron to water is regulated by
|B)||antidiuretic hormone (ADH)|
Which of the following is a result of aldosterone secretion?
|A)||constriction of the efferent arteriole|
|B)||increased levels of angiotensin II|
|C)||reduced potassium levels in the blood|
|D)||increased secretion of sodium in the distal convoluted tubule|
The mechanism that increases amount of a substance excreted in urine that was filtered from the plasma is
Substances that are secreted into the kidney tubules include all but
The normal output of urine for an adult in an hour is
Urine moves along the ureters to the bladder via
The third layer of the bladder wall is composed of smooth muscle fibers and is called the
Which of the following structures is under conscious control?
|A)||external urethral sphincter|
|B)||internal urethral sphincter|
|D)||muscular layer of the ureters|
The fluid formed in the glomerular capsule of the nephron is the same as blood plasma except for the absence of
|B)||large plasma proteins|
Shigatoxin, produced by Escherichia coli, can be transported by the blood to the kidney, where the toxin destroys cells of the kidney’s filter system.
The left kidney is slightly higher than the right one.
The kidney is composed of three main layers, connected by the renal columns.
Erythropoietin controls the rate of white blood cell production.
Venous blood leaves the kidney via the renal vein, which joins the inferior vena cava in the abdomen.
The renal corpuscle consists solely of the glomerulus, a tangled cluster of capillaries.
The peritubular capillary system is a high-pressure system.
Shock, a sudden decrease in arterial blood pressure, can damage kidney cells and lead to renal failure.
The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is inversely proportional to filtration pressure.
The average glomerular filtration rate for both kidneys in healthy adults is 125 ml/minute.
Angiotensin II stimulates the release of aldosterone, which stimulates reabsorption of sodium in the renal tubules.
About 80% of the total blood volume flows through the kidneys each minute.
Different segments of the renal tubule are specialized to reabsorb specific substances, and a variety of transport mechanisms are used throughout the tubule.
There is a ceiling on the amount of glucose that can be reabsorbed, because its reabsorption is dependent on a carrier mechanism.
The amount of urea in the plasma is directly proportional to the amount of protein in the diet.
The urethra carries urine to the outside of the body.
The inner layer of the ureters, or the mucous coat, is continuous with the linings of the renal tubules and the urinary bladder.