The Science of Psychology: An Appreciative View, 1st Edition (King)

Chapter 7: Learning

Key Terms

acquisition (classical conditioning)  The initial learning of the stimulus–response link, which involves a neutral stimulus being associated with an unconditioned stimulus and becoming the conditioned stimulus that elicits the conditioned response.
applied behavior analysis (behavior modification)  The application of operant conditioning principles to change human behavior.
associative learning  Learning in which a connection, or an association, is made between two events.
behaviorism  A theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behaviors, discounting the importance of such mental activity as thinking, wishing, and hoping.
classical conditioning  Learning by which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response.
conditioned response (CR)  The learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after the pairing of a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus.
conditioned stimulus (CS)  A previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits the conditioned response after being associated with the unconditioned stimulus.
counterconditioning  A classical conditioning procedure for weakening a conditioned response by associating the fear-provoking stimulus with a new response that is incompatible with the fear.
discrimination (classical conditioning)  The process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not to others.
discrimination (operant conditioning)  The tendency to respond to stimuli that signal that a behavior will or will not be reinforced.
extinction (classical conditioning)  The weakening of the conditioned response in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus.
extinction (operant conditioning)  The situation where, because a previously reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced, there is a decreased tendency to perform the behavior.
generalization (classical conditioning)  The tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response.
generalization (operant conditioning)  The tendency to give the same response to similar stimuli.
insight learning  A form of problem solving in which the organism develops a sudden insight into or understanding of the problem's solution.
instinctive drift  The tendency of animals to revert to instinctive behavior that interferes with learning.
latent learning (implicit learning)  Unreinforced learning that is not immediately reflected in behavior
law of effect  Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthened, whereas behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened.
learned helplessness  The phenomenon of learning through experience that outcomes are not controllable.
learning  A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience.
negative punishment  A behavior decreases when a positive stimulus is removed from it.
negative reinforcement  Following a behavior with the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus to increase the frequency of the behavior.
observational learning  Learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates another's behavior; also called imitation or modeling.
operant conditioning  Also called instrumental conditioning; a form of learning
positive punishment  A behavior decreases when it is followed by an unpleasant stimulus.
positive reinforcement  Following a behavior with a rewarding stimulus to increase the frequency of the behavior.
preparedness  The species-specific biological predisposition to learn in certain ways but not others.
primary reinforcement  The use of reinforcers that are innately satisfying.
punishment  A consequence that decreases the likelihood a behavior will occur.
reinforcement  The process by which a stimulus or an event strengthens or increases the probability of a behavior or an event that it follows.
schedules of reinforcement  Timetables that determine when a behavior will be reinforced.
secondary reinforcemenT  The use of reinforcers that are learned or conditioned.
shaping  Rewarding approximations of a desired behavior.
spontaneous recovery  The process in classical conditioning by which a conditioned response can recur after a time delay without further conditioning.
unconditioned response (UCR)  An unlearned response that is automatically elicited by an unconditioned stimulus.
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)  A stimulus that produces a response without prior learning.
King: The Science of Psychology large cover image
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