If a researcher is interested in the population of college students at a large state university, which of the following would provide him or her with a random sample?
|A)||randomly approaching students in the student union|
|B)||randomly selecting three classrooms and including all the students in those classrooms in the sample|
|C)||randomly selecting students from a listing of every student in the university|
|D)||randomly selecting students from the incoming class|
A researcher is interested in the racial identity development of African American women. She asks 200 African American women about their racial identity. What is the population?
|A)||the 200 African American women she interviewed|
|C)||all African Americans|
|D)||all African American women|
A researcher has designed a study to test the effects of different types of individual psychotherapy on people's levels of depression. She has randomly assigned people to one of three groups: a cognitive-behavioral treatment group, a psychodynamic treatment group, or a no-treatment control group. She then measures people's level of depression after the treatment. Which of the following statements is true?
|A)||The treatment group is the dependent variable; depression is the independent variable.|
|B)||Depression is the dependent variable; the treatment group is the independent variable.|
|C)||Depression is the dependent variable; cognitive-behavioral treatment is the independent variable.|
|D)||Cognitive-behavioral treatment is the dependent variable; depression is the independent variable.|
A psychologist examines fathers and their children at a picnic. She observes the number of times fathers engage in cooperative play with their children. This study is an example of
|A)||a laboratory study.|
|D)||a survey study.|
A market-research firm calls you on the phone and asks you a series of questions about your attitudes toward exercise. The market-research firm is conducting a(n)
How is a survey different from a standardized test?
|A)||There is no difference.|
|B)||A survey takes place in a naturalistic setting, while a standardized test take place in the laboratory.|
|C)||A survey does not compare a participant's performance to a larger group of participants, while a standardized test does.|
|D)||A standardized test measures a variable, while a survey does not.|
A double-blind study controls for
|D)||experimenter and participant bias.|
|E)||All of the answers are correct.|
Conducting an in-depth interview of a single person with a rare illness is an example of
|A)||a correlational design.|
|D)||a case study.|
A researcher obtained a correlation coefficient of -.65 for the relationship between job satisfaction and experiences of discrimination in the workplace. What does this correlation coefficient mean?
|A)||Discrimination causes decreased job satisfaction.|
|B)||People who experienced more discrimination were less likely to be satisfied with their job.|
|C)||People who were more satisfied with their job experienced more discrimination.|
|D)||There is no relationship between job satisfaction and experiences of discrimination.|
A school psychologist is interested in studying the effectiveness of a reading improvement program. He has randomly assigned participants to one of two groups. The first group receives training in phonics, while the second group is put on a waiting list and receives no training. What is the control group?
|A)||the group that received the phonics training|
|B)||the group that received no training|
Statistical significance refers to
|A)||the probability that a research finding happened by chance.|
|C)||the measure of central tendency.|
|D)||the measure of dispersion.|
Which of the following should be adhered to in conducing ethical research?
|D)||All of the answers are correct.|
How can causality be demonstrated?
|B)||through an experiment|
|C)||through inferential statistics|
|D)||None of the answers are correct.|
Before a study begins, the researcher tells his participants that he is interested in whether exposure to violent stimuli will result in less cooperation within a group. Which of the following should be a concern?
|D)||All of the answers are correct.|
Which of the following is an advantage of laboratory studies?
|B)||lack of participant bias|
|C)||control of extraneous variables|
|D)||observation in a naturalistic setting|
An experimenter is interested in determining if there are differences in happiness, life satisfaction, and optimism between people who have been given a self-help book to read versus those who have been given a sports article to read. What is the independent variable?
A correlation of +.20 indicates
|A)||a weak positive correlation.|
|B)||a strong positive correlation.|
|C)||a weak negative correlation.|
|D)||a strong negative correlation.|
A research study that assesses participants in a laboratory setting in February, May, and August is an example of
|A)||a naturalistic observation study.|
|B)||a longitudinal study.|
|D)||the third variable problem.|
Researchers interested in health behavior postulate that people's decisions about their health are based on attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions. This is an example of
|C)||a correlational research design.|
A researcher is conducting a study on the effects of yoga on mental health. She plans to randomly assign participants to one group that is given a five week yoga intervention or to another group that is given a free five week gym membership. Which of the following would she use to randomly assign participants to one of the groups?
|A)||The first 10 people who enroll will be put in the yoga group; the next 10 will be put in the gym group, and so forth.|
|B)||Men will be put in the yoga group; women will be put in the gym group.|
|C)||Each participant will flip a coin; those who get heads will be put in the yoga group, those who get tails will be put in the gym group.|
|D)||Those that have previously done yoga will be put in the yoga group; those that have not done yoga will be put in the gym group.|